Best Cbd Vape Cartridges

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Such information can truly make all the difference between having a great vaping experience and an underwhelming one. Many brands also give you access to lab reports and reviews by third-party testers, which includes information on the ingredients and potency of their CBD cartridges. This sort of transparency makes it easy for you to determine whether or not their product is a good fit for you and meets your expectations. Terpenes have similar effects on the body, whether eaten or inhaled and are partly responsible for why vaping flavors smell and taste so good. Many CBD cartridges (including some we’ve reviewed above) are made with all-natural, organic ingredients and are free from any artificial additives. Moreover, these batteries usually charge quickly and can provide many puffs between charges – a useful feature for those who like vaping on the go.

Vape oils made with CBD isolate offer pure, concentrated cannabidiol to the body. Full spectrum options give you the complete variety of compounds in hemp, including a multitude of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids. Then, there’s broad spectrum vape oil, which is a THC-free alternative to full spectrum. Our products are strictly for adult smokers or existing vapers over the age of 18 years. The best thing you can do for your health is be smoke free and vape free. Vaping is not harmless but it is much less harmful than smoking.

I Love Salts

From May 2013, the group toured the UK and Ireland with the other groups in The Big Reunion concert series. On 27 March 2013, the group announced they would embark on their first headlining tour later on in the year, their first tour in nearly ten years. In our experience using feminized hemp seeds, we typically find one or two phenotypic males per 10,000 plants. All our hemp seeds are feminized and are genetically stable and ready to be planted immediately upon purchase.

In fact, terpenes are known to be present in many popular fruits and vegetables, so they won’t cause any damage to your health. As is the case with all cannabis products, the effects of CBD can vary for each user. These effects usually vary according to age, lifestyle, and stress levels. Popular vaping magazines report that CBD helps most people attain an altered mental state, which is otherwise difficult to achieve. These cartridges have a 510-thread battery, which makes them ideal to use with just about any vaping device.

Despite the backlash, Blue went on to achieve a second number one in November with the ballad. The album All Rise was released in time for Christmas and reached number one, eventually selling in excess of 1.3 million copies in the UK. The final single from the album, “Fly by II”, reached number six in March 2002. It peaked at number one on the UK Albums Chart and was certified 4× Platinum in the UK. Blue released their fourth studio album, Roulette on 25 January 2013 with “Hurt Lovers” as the lead single. The following month, it was confirmed that the group would be joining The Big Reunion, in which six groups from the past reform for a one-off gig.

In the meantime, don’t let these inconveniences deter you from enjoying a much better alternative to smoking cigarettes. Check your coil heads – As with most mass-produced products, there will always be a few duds. In some cases, the coil may have manufacturing flaws that stop it from holding the juice properly, causing the tank to leak. First, ensure your coil head is screwed in properly and if it is, simply replace the coil—preferably with one from a different batch to the one you’re currently using. If the problem remains, the complication is likely down to one of the other issues addressed here. You might even want to try purchasing the coils from a different vendor to avoid the possibility of getting another bad batch.

Choosing how much CBD vape oil to take in a single session is always the challenge, as too little will give you next to no effects, and too much could potentially make you sleepy. Everyone’s body is unique, and there’s no one-size-fits-all approach to dosing. But most beginners respond well to 10 milligrams per session.

While there are a few common culprits, the good news is that there are ways to prevent leaking from happening. First, we will start with some general tips, and then go into more depth depending on the device you’re using. Falsifying your age for the purpose of purchasing products from this web site is illegal and punishable by law.

If you are unable to germinate indoors, you can alternatively purchase female clones, which are days old and ensure exceptional performance with 0% variability. More information about the germination process can be found on our resource page. We will plant your seeds on a schedule to meet your planting timeline. Clones are days old but grown from the cuttings of select plant-lines that exhibit exceptional performance in the field and in post-harvest processing. Easily change the products or shipping date for your upcoming Scheduled Orders. Save time and energy, your favorite products will ship to you automatically.

Hemp Seedlings & Clones

There are many brick & mortar stores popping up all over the place, but they tend to be expensive & limited in product choices. I am a vape hobbyist currently living in the central Florida area. I have been vaping for over two years now, and constantly keep up to date with the newest vape gear. I recently started working in the vape industry, and my goal is to inform as many people as I can of the benefits of vaping, and how to go about getting the best deals possible. Fuggin Vapor has a huge selection of e-juice to choose from.

A Range Of Nic Strengths

Another downside to refillable CBD pens is that they’re less convenient, discreet, and require more knowledge to use them properly. A look at the best refillable and disposable CBD vape pens available right now and the pros and cons of each how long will a 1000mg cbd oil vape pen last style of CBD vape. A full spectrum vape pen will likely be teeming with cannabinoids and terpenes, so watch out for these when you go through the ingredients. Don’t be alarmed with these names, though; they’re commonly found ingredients.

The device has a robust and compact design that slips into your pocket with ease. The PCKT One Plus uses a magnetic gold adapter compatible with most pre-filled CBD oil cartridges. Kiara Naturals offers a powerful fast-acting treatment for sleep, pain and stress. This distillate vape contains 55% CBD, CBDa and CBC with less than 0.2% THC. It’s made in Switzerland using a slow CO2 extraction process.

Cali Bars disposables sport an attractive and slim design that looks good and works even better. They come prefilled with 1.3ml of either 2% or 5% nicotine salt that provides a smooth, strong and pleasant throat hit. The throat hit from this disposable is on-point and the draw is a pleasant mouth to lung. Their popular Lemon Tart ejuice is just one of 9 flavors available.

That’s why we go the extra mile to ensure we only stock authentic, quality vaping products from reputable suppliers with a spotless track record. Take a glance at our range – available throughout New Zealand. CBD vape oil is designed to be vaped out of a CBD vape pen. With CBD vape oil bottles, you can refill a CBD vape pen cartridge multiple times.

Maintain a clear mind and active lifestyle with Blue Moon CBD hemp oil! – Hemp oil extracts have traditionally been used around the globe as medicine. A large body of evidence has indicated that the benefits of CBD hemp oil may improve general wellbeing. Blue Moon Hemp maintains the biochemical equilibrium within the hemp plants to maximize the beneficial effects of its organic CBD oil.

They especially love flavors like strawberry lemonade, grape, and mint. They also have more traditional flavors such as Honey and Pumpkin for those who are just finding their way around the world of vaping. JustCBD cartridges are perfect for those who vape regularly as they’ll never get bored with the selection of flavors on offer. An excellent way to ensure that the CBD cartridge you’re using is not designed to damage your body would be to check the list of ingredients that go into it. In this case, we’ve done the homework for you and only listed those products that had their ingredients clearly listed out. You’ll find that these cartridges come in a good number of flavors to cater to all tastes.

Breazy runs sales constantly, so when checking their online store be sure to check out their deals page to see great deals on devices, vape juices and more. We recently found a lot of great e-juice and e-cig deals at this online vape shop. If you’re in need of advice check out our FAQor contact our expert customer care team who are here to answer any of your vaping questions.

Our focus in hand picking these varietals was quality, above all else. Our rare, special strains have gained popularity in the hemp cigarette industry as an alternative to smoking tobacco and marijuana. Our genetics offer extremely high research, therapeutic and economic value. The sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited by law.

We isolate our industrial hemp strains to produce products with high CBD content. Our stable, genetically isolated seeds give your grow the best chance of success. With CBD levels averaging in the 13-18% range, our low THC, High CBD genetics ensure your crop won’t run hot.

Each Sigelei Ultra will last for approximately 1500 puffs which is the equivalent of about 120 cigarettes! We recommend trying all of their delicious flavors like Cran Grape, Peach Ice, Vanilla Custard, and Watermelon Lime, just to name a few. With 15 flavors to choose from, there’s guaranteed to be a flavor that you’ll like. In order to choose the best cartridge to cater to your needs, you’ll need to take flavor, potency, and cartridge capacity into account, among other things. In our product reviews, we’ve mentioned such information clearly under each product for easy reference.

A thin crack in the glass or a piece of bent metal can mean the tank is no longer airtight, allowing the juice to leak out and into the air hole valve. If your glass is cracked it is usually an inexpensive and simple solution solox vape to buy a replacement. Check for worn or damaged O-rings – A common cause of leaks. Take apart your tank, remove the O-rings and examine them closely. Look for signs of wear and tear, broken or missing O-rings.

The best disposable e-cigs closely mimic the draw and sensation of smoking a cigarette and they come in some delicious flavors too. They’re also much more convenient to carry around than a pack of cigarettes — most are smaller than a traditional USB drive. They generally aren’t as cost effective as refillable vape pens if you consider the amount of CBD they contain versus the price. They are also by and large limited to a cigarette style draw, a style of vaping also called mouth to lung.

Our team has built a solid reputation for quality programs, competitive rates and unparalleled service. We partner with select retail and wholesale agents nationwide to deliver industry and risk insights that empower greater success as part of Breckenridge Insurance Group. Please make sure that you have great knowledge on all rechargeable batteries before you use them.

Also, Cheef Botanicals uses independent third-party testers to ensure that the CBD cartridges they produce are as potent as they’d like them to be. There are a few basic parameters you’ll need to watch out for, and we’ve made the following list of products keeping all of these in mind. Try and steer clear of CBD cartridges that have artificial additives such as flavors, as these could prove detrimental to your lungs in the long run. Properly derived from hemp and not cannabis, CBD does not carry psychoactive properties. CBD e-liquid contains hemp extract in addition to vegetable glycerin, and other proprietary ingredients that allow the hemp extract to be turned into smooth vapor. Nimbus Salts are proudly made in New Zealand by the team at vapourium.

This mostly takes place when you inhale THC-laced CBD in large quantities of over 200 mg every day. However, many CBD cartridges out there actually contain synthetic CBD, which could damage your health. Such products use only a small amount of organic CBD and dilute it with additives and carriers, which could have negative side effects. Not all users enjoy the feeling of getting high either and don’t really consider it an exciting or altogether pleasurable experience. CBD is ideal for such users as CBD products either less than 0.3% of THC or no THC at all, which means little to no side effects. First and foremost, CBD vaping can help relieve any sort of anxiety or stress and help you relax completely.

Basically, Vape Bright has two main product lines, which are Vape Bright and Vape Bright Thrive Beyond, both of which are top quality products. You can access their lab reports online to prove that all their products are made using only the finest quality CBD oils. Also, these products are priced quite reasonably, which makes it more accessible.

On 11 February, it was confirmed that following high ticket demands and the popularity of The Big Reunion, a full 12-date UK tour would be taking place from 3–12 May 2013. On 28 April 2013, Roulette was released in United Kingdom and Ireland. The track was also used as the United Kingdom’s entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011, which was held in Düsseldorf, Germany. The single 250mg cbd vape cartridge “natural” & adjustable voltage battery kit was released on 1 May 2011 as a digital download, with the physical release the day after. The track peaked at number 16 on the UK Singles Chart, becoming Blue’s lowest-charting single in the United Kingdom to date. The song was written by group members Duncan James and Lee Ryan with Ciaron Bell, Ben Collier, Ian Hope, Liam Keenan, and Norwegian production team StarSign.

Now, the thing about vape cartridges is that their prices range from affordable to downright expensive. It doesn’t matter what your budget is – we’ve included cartridges from all price ranges. Artificial ingredients used in some CBD vape cartridges are cause for concern among health-conscious users. Some of the ingredients used in vape cartridges can cause problems in your lungs and other organs. Therefore, it is not surprising that most consumers rely on authentic reviews to help them decide whether or not they should purchase a specific product.

MyVpro is one of the best online vape stores to find spare parts for atomizers. Fuggin Vapor has a huge selection of e-juice and vape products available for cheap, so you won’t have trouble finding any vape product you’re searching for. This online company offers many sales and price cuts on different products, you can check them out when visiting their site. If you’re an experienced vaper who needs a backup device then disposable vapes can also be great.

It includes everything you need to start vaping, out of the box. It disturbs me that all of the online stores & the majority of the marketing makes no mention of Canadian online Vape stores. I’ve found Canvape to be dependable & loaded with products, so haven’t searched much further than Canadian online Vape stores.

What is sports investing and what are the benefits for me?

You can also earn great returns on your investments by investing in sports, just like in the stock market and forex markets. Sports investing can be more profitable than forex trading or stock trading.
You can also enjoy your favorite What sports and make money from it. You can become an active participant in sports investing if you have a good understanding of sports and are willing to put the effort into researching and understanding the factors that influence sports betting decisions. This will allow you to earn additional money. If you understand it correctly, it isn’t gambling. You must invest your time and energy in studying the statistical information offered by sportsbooks that allow you to place bets. They are more likely to win consistently because their picks and predictions are based on statistical and mathematical algorithms than instinct. It will be more like sports investing than gambling if you do it in a systematic way.
Brokers analyze financial and business data to advise you on which stocks or currencies to buy or sell in the stock or forex markets. Despite all the precautions you take, you might find yourself in a downward spiral of recession. All your analysis could be lost. Even if you do make a profit, timing your selling is crucial. You are wasting a lot of money if you sell too early. You will lose your investment if you sell too soon.
These fears are alleviated by sports investing. You can only place your bets when the game is over. There is no selling time. You can immediately realize your profit or loss once the game is over. Sports investing has the advantage of not having to worry about recession and losing your money even if you make good decisions. Recession doesn’t impact sporting events. The demand for sport entertainment is growing worldwide, and it doesn’t go down in any economy. Sports investing is a great way to increase your chances of success.
You are therefore free from worrying about the economy. All you need to do is research, study, and understand the statistics of your picks for sports betting and then place your bets.

Words To your Kid from Santa Claus

It’s mid-December but there is still sufficient time for kids to publish and deliver their words to Santa. Thankfully, words to the North Rod arrive quickly (because Santa is magic).

You, or even a grandparent, aunt, or advantage adult might help your kid(s) write to Santa and then facilitate Santa’s reply. And Santa likes to aid the economy by sending his replies via the USPS – filled with a postmark from the North Pole!

Here’s how to accomplish it:

Offer your kid(s) with the report, pens, colors, etc. for publishing to Santa Claus.

Help them position their page into a package, seal it, add their reunite handle, bring a personalized postage press, and create “SPECIAL DELIVERY” on the front. Address the package to:

Santa Claus
The North Post

Then, drop the page in the mailbox – wink, wink – and their function is done. The following measures are for you to handle following their bedtime.

Create Santa’s reply on the trunk or use a new little bit of stationery.

Place the reply into an envelope resolved to your kid(s). Make sure you contain Santa’s return handle and put in a First-Class or Forever page stamp.

Next, place the cover with Santa’s page in it into a bigger envelope. (A USPS Priority Send package makes it simple!) Put your get-back address and the proper postage. Then address the bigger bag to:

North Post Postmark
Postmaster
4141 Postmark Push
Anchorage, AK 99530-9998

That is once the USPS operates their magic. Once the Anchorage post office receives your page, they’ll know just things to do. They’ll eliminate Santa’s page, stamp it with a postmark from the North Rod, and drop it proper back into the mail to your kid(s).

PLANNING FOR DELAYED DELIVERY OF SANTA’S REPLIES
If it’s too late for the kid(s) to get Santa’s response before Xmas, you can however send the page as long as you intend an explanation for the delay. This season especially, this has been problematic for Santa to create and send every one of his replies before Christmas Eve, therefore he will have to drop some of his letters into mailboxes along the way as he gives gifts. Even though the ideas for Xmas all year extended, we can all note that December is filled with meet and greets plus loading the sleigh. And Santa knows that children may use a reminder to be on their best conduct whether it’s January, July, or December!  letter from santa

If you’d like to simply help Santa deliver an answer from one of his presents on Christmas Eve, the locations here are on his option and make for enjoyment postmarks on his letters. The procedure for getting these postmarks is the same as above. Position Santa’s letter into a bigger bag then handles it to “Postmaster” at among the following locations. It’s that easy. There’s a number block handle required.

Christmas Area, OR 97641

Xmas, FL 32709

Christmas, MI 49862

Comet, NC 28643

Dasher, GA 31601

Donner River, CA 96161

Garland, TX 75040

Joy, IL 61260

Mistletoe, KY 41351

Noel, MO 64854

North Rod, NY

Rudolph, WI 54475

Santa Claus, GA 30436

Santa Claus, IN 47579

Santa, ID 83866

Vixen, LA 71418

If you select to deliver Santa’s page on Christmas Eve, it’s fun to say a unique thanks for any treats that were remaining for him or his reindeer. He may also discuss distinctive decorations that just a Santa Claus who trips the house might know about. Have fun with it! Every baby who thinks is going to be happy over their personal letter from Santa.

Inlays and Medallions Give Wood Flooring a Unique Look

Hardwood Floor Sales & Installation in Silver Spring, MD

A hardwood floor is an unmistakable flooring choice that gives rooms a warmth and beauty unmatched by other materials. Hardwood floors are still in high demand today, as it is not surprising that they have stood the test. Many hardwood floors have been covered in carpet over the years. They were then uncovered and refinished to their original glory a few years later. My Affordable Floors is the best place to go if you are looking for hardwood floor refinishing experts in the Milwaukee, Racine and Chicago areas.

While finished hardwood flooring is beautiful, homeowners often want a distinctive look to their home in order to reflect their individual style. Hardwood flooring is usually made from maple or oak, which are both beautiful but very common. Some woods are not as unique as others, but they can still be used for those who want something different. My Affordable Floors offers its installation service for medallions and inlays to their customers.

To see more of our amazing work, visit our online gallery. These pieces of art require skill and years of experience in hardwood flooring. In-lays and medallions are often made of icons or geometric shapes that have special meaning to the customer floor services. Our artists will work closely with you to create a look that reflects your personal taste and deliver amazing results. Although My Affordable Floors is proud of the work they do in flooring, these challenges give us the opportunity to create beautiful works of art within a hardwood floor.

Wood floor medallions or in-lays are a great way to add style and character to your floors. Wood medallions are available for installation in new construction and in existing floors during the repair or refinishing process. My Affordable Floors offers the best quality, selection, and design with unmatched service. Your floor medallion or in-lay can be customized to meet your requirements. This will add an extra special touch to your home and office.

Big Things in Small Packages – An HTC Gratia Review

The initial school of applications to remember in regards to increasing your residing production is applications linked to driving and obtaining your path around. They are GPS applications, and they basically turn your smartphone in to a tiny portable GPS device. These purposes permit you to only put in your location and you will be able to see regional restaurants or even the addresses of your friends and family.

Google Maps Navigation is a great request that can help you attain only that. This is ostensibly an intelligent telephone version of the extremely popular internet site on the web that enables people put in directions and search for locations. Google’s Maps Application presents satellite and street views that other cellular applications do not provide.

Firm applications for the LG Enjoyment will also be essential because they can support us remain structured and produce life much easier for us. Organizational applications can include applications that assist you to with arrangement and conference visits and deadlines, in addition to applications at that support you place up calendars and even produce your own to accomplish provides through the touchscreen and writing performance of the phones. It is becoming harder to remain on top of points today in contemporary life, because so many folks have many obligations to tend to, so when you’re able to turn your smartphone in to an ally to help you remain attached and up to date with contemporary life, then it’s value using advantage of.

Mobile Searching has additionally become remarkably popular and that’s why there are many searching purposes for sale in the App Market. These kinds of applications can give you directions and addresses and results to the nearest centers, shops, food markets, and other aspects of contemporary life that you could be enthusiastic about locating in the actual world. You can also use such applications to learn all sorts of reviews of stores that can help you determine which keep you are enthusiastic about visiting or getting points from.  Shycocan

As you will see, you can find several features about the LG Enjoyment can be good for day-to-day coping with several applications, including applications for driving, searching, and work. Along the way, it would perhaps not be described as a bad idea to look in to some accessories such as a data wire, an incident, screen defender, and a Wireless headset. Using a data wire you will be able to transfer files from your PC to your telephone and the Wireless headset allows you speak hands-free as you get which is often really good for your safety.

their residence to examine if the garage door closed. Get some good bit of mind and don’t be concerned about turning everything down before you leave. You are able to turn everything down without even being there. Hook up to the user screen, shut garage door and always check any parts you may have forgotten. A good home may also support keep you on-time.

Simplify your house and perform the House Movie audio, movie, and some other parts all from distant control. One handy remote control is an easy and easy solution to play music in virtually any room at anytime. If you prefer music, utilize the multi-room audio function and balance out the acoustics in your home. You can be green and appreciate the right feel in most room with lighting control. Dimming your lights uses less energy, thus helping you save money. Enjoy get a handle on from everywhere with an intelligent telephone or web connection. Get some good bit of mind and monitor your house security while on the road.

Raffi Master – Poker Participant or Organization Person?

Start up organizations perform a massive position in society today. Apple was after a start up in a garage, until it got the financing it needed to be a multi-billion money corporation. Bing, also, was a start-up, with inventory brokers at one time offering the internet research giant’s gives at under $5. It happens to be difficult for Raffi Master to choose whether to enjoy herself enjoying poker, his love, or locating more great start up organizations like Bidz.com to help thousands or tens and thousands of investors ensure it is wealthy, too.

On the main one hand Raffi Master has already established plenty of accomplishment enjoying tournament poker with lots of victories in Colorado and Vegas. Nevertheless his accomplishment with start up organizations has been much more impressive.

As a co-founder of online market big Bidz.com back in 1998 he served Bidz.com enhance the $28 million had a need to grow and later go public login pkv games. Investors were honored significantly when the company floated on NASDAQ at $8 and within a couple of months reached $22.50.

“I’ve generally loved enjoying poker” Raffi master said, your competitors actually gets me going. “After I truly realized how to perform I was hooked “.Raffi King’s desire would be to win a desirable bracelet at the World Series of Poker used each year in Las Vegas. “One win there may pay life changing money” Raffi Master says.

At this time Raffi Master is working together with a small grouping of doctor’s designers and entrepreneur to develop the sides initial early caution detection system aimed at avoiding SIDS or unexpected child death syndrome. “I realized I desired to be part of this challenge the minute I saw it,” Raffi said. SIDS, also called’Crib-Death ‘, is really a sad thing that influences tens and thousands of babies each year.

When we can help to save yourself actually one then it was price it. You are able to learn more about this excellent new challenge by visiting the company’s web page at Rural Life System. This device can hopefully be in the stores within a year.

Collector Car Insurance – Top 6 Benefits of Specialty Collector Car Insurance Companies

Would you actually question why various cars set you back various amounts for vehicle insurance premiums? Why is it a new Corvette may possibly set you back $1,600 dollars a month in vehicle insurance and an older Buick Regal may possibly just set you back $90 monthly? The brand new vehicle insurance price versus the previous vehicle insurance price is just a matter that you must evaluation before you decide any car. Evaluation insurance prices before you decide and you will not get caught in an economic trap.

New cars price more to insure than previous cars for three reasons. First, an automobile theft of a new and incredible vehicle prices a great deal more compared to the vehicle theft of an older and normal type car. That is because of the large value difference of the new vehicle versus previous car. For example, a new Chevy Caprice is much more costly to insure than an older Chevy Caprice. It just prices additional money to replace a new, costly vehicle than an older, less costly car.

Next, the fee to repair a new vehicle is much more than the fee to repair a vintage car. Therefore, that truth will also boost your insurance advanced price for a new car. For example, in case a new Chevy Caprice is broken in an accident, the vehicle repair center will demand you much additional money for fixes than if the subject vehicle were a ten-year previous Chevy Caprice. For this reason, your insurer will demand you a great deal more insurance premiums on a new car than an older car because of such fix costs.

Next, the type and type of vehicle also will greatly influence the cost of Car insurance premiums your vehicle insurance business will demand you. Insurance organizations use actuarial statistic tables which show them yesteryear reduction knowledge on unique models and forms of cars. They use these tables, to simply help estimate what premiums to demand their clients in the future. Mathematical tables show these insurance companies that owners of certain models and forms of cars, such as activities cars, take part in more dangerous driving conduct than owners of cars which can be of normal type and style.

For example, insurance business statistical tables reveal that the insurer has skilled more failures with activities cars than with normal cars. It is because the master of a Corvette will probably push such vehicle quicker and riskier than the master of a Toyota Camry. With such pace and chance also arrives more failures for the insurance companies. With such chance and reduction raise, the insurance business should then raise their return and demand more for vehicle insurance premiums.

Another example of how the sort and style of car may possibly provide an insurance business with more chance is the off-road type vehicles like the Hummer type of vehicles. These vehicles are designed to perform in the off-road type environment. They’re increased up down the floor more than typical automobiles for less than carriage clearance. Also, there is also four-wheel push capability.

With such style capabilities, the statistical tables reveal that the insurance business has skilled more failures with these types of cars than typical cars. The reason being the owners of such vehicles will take part in off-road driving which can be equally dangerous to the vehicle and driver. In reality, some insurance organizations may possibly bar recovery for such problems, when the master of the covered car was broken while any engaging in dangerous, off-road driving. Again, with more chance, the insurance business will increase return and ergo vehicle insurance premiums. Since you know that certain models and forms of cars price more to insure than others, you need to be wise about what kind of car you will buy.

Rather than have a guess at everything you think a vehicle’s insurance prices are, call your car or truck insurance business and question your insurance agent for a free vehicle insurance estimate for the actual type of car that you are interested in buying. You can get a conclusive answer to your issue of whether or not you are able equally the automobile and the insurance premiums necessary to protect your car or truck against covered losses.

Enough time to create such evaluation isn’t after you acquire a vehicle. When this occurs with time, it’s also late. Enough time to create such evaluation is way before your buying an automobile. You actually want to be ready to create equally vehicle payments along with insurance advanced payments. Get a free vehicle insurance estimate in advance and prevent economic problems.

Secret Behind Technology Blogging: A Best Niche In Blogging

It is no secret that there is a secret behind technology blogging; it is one of the best niches in blogging. Blogging about technology is one of the best ways to get ahead in modern society. In fact, technology blogging is the best niche in blogging these days for anyone who wants to start up a successful business.

If you plan to create a new business or any successful business ventures, one of the best ways to do so is to consider the technology niche in blogging.

The Secrets of Niche Blogging: Technology

These days there are so many technologies to choose from, it’s hard not to blog about them. Some popular examples of technology blogs include:

iPhone how to guides and tutorials

Information and technology news

Technology updates and rumors

The latest technological breakthroughs

Android

Windows and Mac

Technology Editorials and Opinion Pieces

Technology blogs are the perfect accompaniment to a day job although many people find running a niche technology blog can be exciting and take up a bit of time on the side.

How To Run A Successful Secret Technology Niche Blogging Business

It doesn’t take very long to get a niche technology blog up and running. All one need to do is set up a blog account, which is easily done through WordPress or any other free blogging module.

Typically it helps to add a new blog post at least once or twice a week, if not daily. This helps to compete with ultra high-ranking websites. The technology niche is one of the simplest niches to write about.

There are tons of information readily available about most forms of technology. There is always something new in the news about the latest iPhone, or what some star or celebrity has done with their Mac, or latest technology device.

The other approach to technology is writing about how you made money using technology. Most people want nothing more than to learn about how they can make money using technology. And, that is essentially what you do when you create a niche technology blog… make money using technology.

Another great niche in the technology arena is a blog focusing on general technological advances and information. However, the competition for a niche that broad however, may be very high, especially when it comes to purchasing AdSense revenue. If you can narrow your technology niche down significantly, to something very narrow, then you will reap the benefits.

Good, narrow niches are well thought out. Some examples may include very detailed subjects and niche topics, including:

iPhone covers and cases

Android Travel Phones

Mac laptop covers and cases

Windows technological breakthroughs

The more narrow the subject material, the more likely you are to select keywords that bring in targeted audience members. There is also less likely to be competition for your keywords. You want to pay as little as possible to attract AdSense revenues. This is how to make the most bang for your buck when blogging on technology.

Remember that the secret is out; technology is a great niche to take advantage of. People are constantly seeking new and exciting information about technology. So discover the areas you can write better about, and dig in. Discover for yourself the secret behind technology blogging and find a good niche in the technology blogging that you and your business can get benefit from.

Leaping Into the 6th Technology Revolution

We’re at risk of missing out on some of the most profound opportunities offered by the technology revolution that has just begun.

Yet many are oblivious to the signs and are in danger of watching this become a period of noisy turmoil rather than the full-blown insurrection needed to launch us into a green economy. What we require is not a new spinning wheel, but fabrics woven with nanofibers that generate solar power. To make that happen, we need a radically reformulated way of understanding markets, technology, financing, and the role of government in accelerating change. But will we understand the opportunities before they disappear?

Seeing the Sixth Revolution for What It Is

We are seven years into the beginning of what analysts at BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research call the Sixth Revolution. A table by Carlotta Perez, which was presented during a recent BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research luncheon hosted by Robert Preston and Steven Milunovich, outlines the revolutions that are unexpected in their own time that lead to the one in which we find ourselves.

 

  • 1771: Mechanization and improved water wheels
  • 1829: Development of steam for industry and railways
  • 1875: Cheap steel, availability of electricity, and the use of city gas
  • 1908: Inexpensive oil, mass-produced internal combustion engine vehicles, and universal electricity
  • 1971: Expansion of information and tele-communications
  • 2003: Cleantech and biotech

 

The Vantage of Hindsight

Looking back at 1971, we know that Intel’s introduction of the microprocessor marked the beginning of a new era. But in that year, this meant little to people watching Mary Tyler Moore and The Partridge Family, or listening to Tony Orlando & Dawn and Janis Joplin. People would remember humanity’s first steps on the Moon, opening relations between US and China, perhaps the successful completion of the Human Genome Project to 99.99% accuracy, and possibly the birth of Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists.

 

According to Ben Weinberg, Partner, Element Partners, “Every day, we see American companies with promising technologies that are unable to deploy their products because of a lack of debt financing. By filling this gap, the government will ignite the mass deployment of innovative technologies, allowing technologies ranging from industrial waste heat to pole-mounted solar PV to prove their economics and gain credibility in the debt markets.” 

 

Flying beneath our collective radar was the first floppy disk drive by IBM, the world’s first e-mail sent by Ray Tomlinson, the launch of the first laser printer by Xerox PARC and the Cream Soda Computer by Bill Fernandez and Steve Wozniak (who would found the Apple Computer company with Steve Jobs a few years later). 

Times have not changed that much. It’s 2011 and many of us face a similar disconnect with the events occurring around us. We are at the equivalent of 1986, a year on the cusp of the personal computer and the Internet fundamentally changing our world. 1986 was also the year that marked the beginning of a major financial shift into new markets. Venture Capital (VC) experienced its most substantial finance-raising season, with approximately $750 million, and the NASDAQ was established to help create a market for these companies.

Leading this charge was Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Beyers (KPCB), a firm that turned technical expertise into possibly the most successful IT venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. The IT model looked for a percentage of big successes to offset losses: an investment like the $8 million in Cerent, which was sold to Cisco Systems for $6.9 billion, could make up for a lot of great ideas that didn’t quite make it.

Changing Financial Models

But the VC model that worked so well for information and telecommunications doesn’t work in the new revolution. Not only is the financing scale of the cleantech revolution orders of magnitude larger than the last, this early in the game even analysts are struggling to see the future.

Steven Milunovich, who hosted the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research lunch, remarked that each revolution has an innovation phase which may last for as long as 25 years, followed by an implementation phase of another 25. Most money is made in the first 20 years, so real players want to get in early. But the question is: Get in where, for how much and with whom?

There is still market scepticism and uncertainty about the staying power of the clean energy revolution. Milunovich estimates that many institutional investors don’t believe in global warming, and adopt a “wait and see” attitude complicated by government impasse on energy security legislation. For those who are looking at these markets, their motivation ranges from concerns about oil scarcity, supremacy in the “new Sputnik” race, the shoring up of homeland security and – for some – a concern about the effects of climate change. Many look askance at those who see that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in how we produce and use energy. Milunovich, for all these reasons, is “cautious in the short term, bullish on the long.”

The Valley of Death

Every new technology brings with it needs for new financing. In the sixth revolution, with budget needs 10 times those of IT, the challenge is moving from idea to prototype to commercialization. The Valley of Death, as a recent Bloomberg New Energy Finance whitepaper, Crossing the Valley of Death pointed out, is the gap between technology creation and commercial maturity.

But some investors and policy makers continue to hope that private capital will fuel this gap, much as it did the last. They express concern over the debt from government programs like the stimulus funds (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) which have invested millions in new technologies in the clean energy sector, as well as helping states with rebuilding infrastructure and other projects. They question why the traditional financing models, which made the United States the world leader in information technology and telecommunications, can’t be made to work today, if the Government would just get out of the way.

But analysts from many sides of financing believe that government support, of some kind, is essential to move projects forward, because cleantech and biotech projects require a much larger input of capital in order to get to commercialization. This gap not only affects commercialization, but is also affecting investments in new technologies, because financial interests are concerned that their investment might not see fruition – get to commercial scale.

How new technologies are radically different from the computer revolution.

Infrastructure complexity

This revolution is highly dependent on an existing – but aging – energy infrastructure. Almost 40 years after the start of the telecommunications revolution, we are still struggling with a communications infrastructure that is fragmented, redundant, and inefficient. Integrating new sources of energy, and making better use of what we have, is an even more complex – and more vital – task.

According to “Crossing the Valley of Death,” the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Whitepaper,

 

“The events of the past few years confirm that it is only with the public sector’s help that the Commercialization Valley of Death can be addressed, both in the short and the long term. Only public institutions have ‘public benefits’ obligations and the associated mandated risk-tolerance for such classes of investments, along with the capital available to make a difference at scale. Project financiers have shown they are willing to pick up the ball and finance the third, 23rd, and 300th project that uses that new technology. It is the initial technology risk that credit committees and investment managers will not tolerate.” 

 

Everything runs on fuel and energy, from our homes to our cars to our industries, schools, and hospitals. Most of us have experienced the disconnect we feel when caught in a blackout: “The air-conditioner won’t work so I guess I’ll turn on a fan,” only to realize we can’t do either. Because energy is so vital to every aspect of our economy, federal, state and local entities regulate almost every aspect of how energy is developed, deployed, and monetized. Wind farm developers face a patchwork quilt of municipal, county, state and federal regulations in getting projects to scale. 

Incentives from government sources, as well as utilities, pose both an opportunity and a threat: the market rises and falls in direct proportion to funding and incentives. Navigating these challenges takes time and legal expertise: neither of which are in abundant supply to entrepreneurs.

Development costs

Though microchips are creating ever-smaller electronics, cleantech components – such as wind turbines and photovoltaics – are huge. They can’t be developed in a garage, like Hewlett and Packard’s first oscilloscope. A new generation of biofuels that utilizes nanotechnology isn’t likely to take place out of a dorm room, as did Michael Dell’s initial business selling customized computers. What this means for sixth revolution projects is that they have much larger funding needs, at much earlier stages.

Stepping up and supporting innovation, universities – and increasingly corporations – are partnering with early stage entrepreneurs. They are providing technology resources, such as laboratories and technical support, as well as management expertise in marketing, product development, government processes, and financing. Universities get funds from technology transfer arrangements, while corporations invest in a new technologies, expanding their product base, opening new businesses, or providing cost-benefit and risk-analysis of various approaches.

But even with such help, venture capital and other private investors are needed to augment costs that cannot be born alone. These investors look to some assurance that projects will produce revenue in order to return the original investment. So concerns over the Valley of Death affects even early stage funding.

Time line to completion

So many of us balk at two year contracts for our cell phones that there is talk of making such requirements illegal. But energy projects, by their size and complexity, look out over years, if not decades. Commercial and industrial customers look to spread their costs over ten to twenty years, and contracts cover contingencies like future business failure, the sale of properties, or the prospect of renovations that may affect the long term viability of the original project.

Kevin Walsh, managing director and head of Power and Renewable Energy at GE Energy Financial Services states, “GE Energy Financial Services supports the creation of CEDA or a similar institution because it would expand the availability of low-cost capital to the projects and companies in which we invest, and it would help expand the market for technology supplied by other GE businesses.”

Michael Holman, analyst for Lux Research, noted that a $25 million investment in Google morphed into $1.7 billion 5 years later. In contrast, a leading energy storage company started with a $300 million investment, and 9 years later valuation remains uncertain. These are the kinds of barriers that can stall the drive we need for 21st century technologies.

Looking to help bridge the gap in new cleantech and biotech projects, is a proposed government-based solution called the Clean Energy Deployment Administration (CEDA). There is a house and senate version, as well as a house Green Bank bill to provide gap financing. Recently, over 42 companies, representing many industries and organizations, signed a letter to President Obama, supporting the Senate version, the “21st Century Energy Technology Deployment Act.”

Both the house and senate bills propose to create, as an office within the US Department of Energy (DOE), an administration which would be tasked with lending to risky cleantech projects for the purpose of bringing new technologies to market. CEDA would be the bridge needed to ensure the successful establishment of the green economy, by partnering with private investment to bring the funding needed to get these technologies to scale. Both versions capitalize the agency with $10 Billion (Senate) and $7.5 Billion (House), with an expected 10% loss reserve long term.

By helping a new technology move more effectively through the pipeline from idea to deployment, CEDA can substantially increase private sector investment in energy technology development and deployment. It can create a more successful US clean energy industry, with all the attendant economic and job creation benefits.

Who Benefits?

CEDA funding could be seen as beneficial for even the most unlikely corporations. Ted Horan is the Marketing and Business Development Manager for Hycrete, a company that sells a waterproof concrete. Hardly a company that springs to mind when we think about clean technologies, he recently commented on why Hycrete CEO, Richard Guinn, is a signatory on the letter to Obama:

 

“The allocation of funding for emerging clean energy technologies through CEDA is an important step in solving our energy and climate challenges. Companies on the cusp of large-scale commercial deployment will benefit greatly and help accelerate the adoption of clean energy practices throughout our economy.” 

 

In his opinion, the manufacturing and construction that is needed to push us out of a stagnating economy will be supported by innovation coming from the cleantech and biotech sectors. 

Google’s Dan Reicher, Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives, has been a supporter from the inception of CEDA. He has testified before both houses of Congress, and was a signatory on the letter to President Obama. Google’s interest in clean and renewable energies dates back several years. The company is actively involved in projects to cut costs of solar thermal and expand the use of plug-in vehicles, and has developed the Power Meter, a product which brings home energy management to anyone’s desktop-for free.

Financial support includes corporations like GE Energy Financial Services, Silicon Valley Venture Capital such as Kleiner, Perkins Caulfiled and Byers, and Mohr Davidow Ventures, and Energy Capital including Hudson Clean Energy and Element Partners.Can something like the senate version of CEDA leap the Valley of Death?

As Will Coleman from Mohr Davidow Ventures, said, “The Devil’s in the details.” The Senate version has two significant changes from previous proposals: an emphasis on breakthrough as opposed to conventional technologies, and political independence.

Neil Auerbach, Managing Partner, Hudson Clean Energy

The clean energy sector can be a dynamic growth engine for the US economy, but not without thoughtful government support for private capital formation. **[Government policy] promises to serve as a valuable bridging tool to accelerate private capital formation around companies facing the challenge, and can help ensure that the US remains at the forefront of the race for dominance in new energy technologies.

Breakthrough Technologies

Coleman said that “breakthrough” includes the first or second deployment of a new approach, not just the game changing science-fiction solution that finally brings us limitless energy at no cost. The Bloomberg New Energy white paper uses the term “First of Class.” Bringing solar efficiency up from 10% to 20%, or bringing manufacturing costs down by 50%, would be a breakthrough that would help us begin to compete with threats from China and India. Conventional technologies, those that are competing with existing commercialized projects, would get less emphasis.

Political Independence

Political independence is top of mind for many who spoke or provided an analysis of the bill. Michael Holman, analyst at Lux Research, expressed the strongest concerns that CEDA doesn’t focus enough on incentives to bring together innovative start-ups with larger established firms.

 

“The government itself taking on the responsibility of deciding what technologies to back isn’t likely to work-it’s an approach with a dreadful track record. That said, it is important for the federal government to lead – the current financing model for bringing new energy technologies to market is broken, and new approaches are badly needed.” 

 

For many, the senate bill has many advantages over the house bill, in providing for a decision making process that includes technologists and private sector experts. 

 

“I think both sides [of the aisle] understand this is an important program, and must enable the government to be flexible and employ a number of different approaches. The Senate version empowers CEDA to take a portfolio approach and manage risk over time, which I think is good. In the House bill, CEDA has to undergo the annual appropriation process, which runs the risk of politicizing every investment decision in isolation and before we have a chance to see the portfolio mature.” – Will Coleman, Mohr Davidow. 

 

Michael DeRosa, Managing Director of Element Partners added, 

 

“The framework must ensure the selection of practical technologies, optimization of risk/return for taxpayer dollars, and appropriate oversight for project selection and spending. **Above all, these policies must be designed with free markets principles in mind and not be subject to political process.” 

 

If history is any indication, rarely are those in the middle of game-changing events aware of their role in what will one day be well-known for their sweeping influence. But what we can see clearly now is the gap between idea and commercial maturity. CEDA certainly offers some hope that we may yet see the cleantech age grow up into adulthood. But will we act quickly enough before all of the momentum and hard work that has brought us this far falls flat as other countries take leadership roles, leaving us in the dust? 

THE GREEN ECONOMY is an information company, providing timely, credible facts and analyses on companies adapting to meet the challenges of a green future.

Markets are in transition; customers are demanding a higher quality of life, such as clean water and energy. These pressures are affecting commodity prices, access to markets, the nature of innovation and more. At the same time, infrastructure (water, energy, transportation), is becoming more – not less – localized. These changes mean opportunities and demand new partnerships to deliver increasingly complex solutions. THE GREEN ECONOMY tells those stories.

Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century

In the past few decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological progress and use of information technology will continue at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the dramatic increases in the power and use of new information technologies has been the declining cost of communications as a result of both technological improvements and increased competition. According to Moore’s law the processing power of microchips is doubling every 18 months. These advances present many significant opportunities but also pose major challenges. Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.

One of the most significant outcomes of the progress of information technology is probably electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way of conducting business. Though only a few years old, it may radically alter economic activities and the social environment. Already, it affects such large sectors as communications, finance and retail trade and might expand to areas such as education and health services. It implies the seamless application of information and communication technology along the entire value chain of a business that is conducted electronically.

The impacts of information technology and electronic commerce on business models, commerce, market structure, workplace, labour market, education, private life and society as a whole.

1. Business Models, Commerce and Market Structure

One important way in which information technology is affecting work is by reducing the importance of distance. In many industries, the geographic distribution of work is changing significantly. For instance, some software firms have found that they can overcome the tight local market for software engineers by sending projects to India or other nations where the wages are much lower. Furthermore, such arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on nearly around the clock. Firms can outsource their manufacturing to other nations and rely on telecommunications to keep marketing, R&D, and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing groups. Thus the technology can enable a finer division of labour among countries, which in turn affects the relative demand for various skills in each nation. The technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Firms have greater freedom to locate their economic activities, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, labour, capital, and other resource markets. It also opens the door for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations apply.

Computers and communication technologies also promote more market-like forms of production and distribution. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. This infrastructure might also provide the means for effecting real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant. Removal of intermediaries would reduce the costs in the production and distribution value chain. The information technologies have facilitated the evolution of enhanced mail order retailing, in which goods can be ordered quickly by using telephones or computer networks and then dispatched by suppliers through integrated transport companies that rely extensively on computers and communication technologies to control their operations. Nonphysical goods, such as software, can be shipped electronically, eliminating the entire transport channel. Payments can be done in new ways. The result is disintermediation throughout the distribution channel, with cost reduction, lower end-consumer prices, and higher profit margins.

The impact of information technology on the firms’ cost structure can be best illustrated on the electronic commerce example. The key areas of cost reduction when carrying out a sale via electronic commerce rather than in a traditional store involve physical establishment, order placement and execution, customer support, strong, inventory carrying, and distribution. Although setting up and maintaining an e-commerce web site might be expensive, it is certainly less expensive to maintain such a storefront than a physical one because it is always open, can be accessed by millions around the globe, and has few variable costs, so that it can scale up to meet the demand. By maintaining one ‘store’ instead of several, duplicate inventory costs are eliminated. In addition, e-commerce is very effective at reducing the costs of attracting new customers, because advertising is typically cheaper than for other media and more targeted. Moreover, the electronic interface allows e-commerce merchants to check that an order is internally consistent and that the order, receipt, and invoice match. Through e-commerce, firms are able to move much of their customer support on line so that customers can access databases or manuals directly. This significantly cuts costs while generally improving the quality of service. E-commerce shops require far fewer, but high-skilled, employees. E-commerce also permits savings in inventory carrying costs. The faster the input can be ordered and delivered, the less the need for a large inventory. The impact on costs associated with decreased inventories is most pronounced in industries where the product has a limited shelf life (e.g. bananas), is subject to fast technological obsolescence or price declines (e.g. computers), or where there is a rapid flow of new products (e.g. books, music). Although shipping costs can increase the cost of many products purchased via electronic commerce and add substantially to the final price, distribution costs are significantly reduced for digital products such as financial services, software, and travel, which are important e-commerce segments.

Although electronic commerce causes the disintermediation of some intermediaries, it creates greater dependency on others and also some entirely new intermediary functions. Among the intermediary services that could add costs to e-commerce transactions are advertising, secure online payment, and delivery. The relative ease of becoming an e-commerce merchant and setting up stores results in such a huge number of offerings that consumers can easily be overwhelmed. This increases the importance of using advertising to establish a brand name and thus generate consumer familiarity and trust. For new e-commerce start-ups, this process can be expensive and represents a significant transaction cost. The openness, global reach, and lack of physical clues that are inherent characteristics of e-commerce also make it vulnerable to fraud and thus increase certain costs for e-commerce merchants as compared to traditional stores. New techniques are being developed to protect the use of credit cards in e-commerce transactions, but the need for greater security and user verification leads to increased costs. A key feature of e-commerce is the convenience of having purchases delivered directly. In the case of tangibles, such as books, this incurs delivery costs, which cause prices to rise in most cases, thereby negating many of the savings associated with e-commerce and substantially adding to transaction costs.

With the Internet, e-commerce is rapidly expanding into a fast-moving, open global market with an ever-increasing number of participants. The open and global nature of e-commerce is likely to increase market size and change market structure, both in terms of the number and size of players and the way in which players compete on international markets. Digitized products can cross the border in real time, consumers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and firms are increasingly faced with international online competition. The Internet is helping to enlarge existing markets by cutting through many of the distribution and marketing barriers that can prevent firms from gaining access to foreign markets. E-commerce lowers information and transaction costs for operating on overseas markets and provides a cheap and efficient way to strengthen customer-supplier relations. It also encourages companies to develop innovative ways of advertising, delivering and supporting their product and services. While e-commerce on the Internet offers the potential for global markets, certain factors, such as language, transport costs, local reputation, as well as differences in the cost and ease of access to networks, attenuate this potential to a greater or lesser extent.

2. Workplace and Labour Market

Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes. They enable collaborative work involving distributed communities of actors who seldom, if ever, meet physically. These technologies utilize communication infrastructures that are both global and always up, thus enabling 24-hour activity and asynchronous as well as synchronous interactions among individuals, groups, and organizations. Social interaction in organizations will be affected by use of computers and communication technologies. Peer-to-peer relations across department lines will be enhanced through sharing of information and coordination of activities. Interaction between superiors and subordinates will become more tense because of social control issues raised by the use of computerized monitoring systems, but on the other hand, the use of e-mail will lower the barriers to communications across different status levels, resulting in more uninhibited communications between supervisor and subordinates.

That the importance of distance will be reduced by computers and communication technology also favours telecommuting, and thus, has implications for the residence patterns of the citizens. As workers find that they can do most of their work at home rather than in a centralized workplace, the demand for homes in climatically and physically attractive regions would increase. The consequences of such a shift in employment from the suburbs to more remote areas would be profound. Property values would rise in the favoured destinations and fall in the suburbs. Rural, historical, or charming aspects of life and the environment in the newly attractive areas would be threatened. Since most telecommuters would be among the better educated and higher paid, the demand in these areas for high-income and high-status services like gourmet restaurants and clothing boutiques would increase. Also would there be an expansion of services of all types, creating and expanding job opportunities for the local population.

By reducing the fixed cost of employment, widespread telecommuting should make it easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously. Since changing employers would not necessarily require changing one’s place of residence, telecommuting should increase job mobility and speed career advancement. This increased flexibility might also reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction. Since job stress is a major factor governing health there may be additional benefits in the form of reduced health costs and mortality rates. On the other hand one might also argue that technologies, by expanding the number of different tasks that are expected of workers and the array of skills needed to perform these tasks, might speed up work and increase the level of stress and time pressure on workers.

A question that is more difficult to be answered is about the impacts that computers and communications might have on employment. The ability of computers and communications to perform routine tasks such as bookkeeping more rapidly than humans leads to concern that people will be replaced by computers and communications. The response to this argument is that even if computers and communications lead to the elimination of some workers, other jobs will be created, particularly for computer professionals, and that growth in output will increase overall employment. It is more likely that computers and communications will lead to changes in the types of workers needed for different occupations rather than to changes in total employment.

A number of industries are affected by electronic commerce. The distribution sector is directly affected, as e-commerce is a way of supplying and delivering goods and services. Other industries, indirectly affected, are those related to information and communication technology (the infrastructure that enables e-commerce), content-related industries (entertainment, software), transactions-related industries (financial sector, advertising, travel, transport). eCommerce might also create new markets or extend market reach beyond traditional borders. Enlarging the market will have a positive effect on jobs. Another important issue relates to inter linkages among activities affected by e-commerce. Expenditure for e-commerce-related intermediate goods and services will create jobs indirectly, on the basis of the volume of electronic transactions and their effect on prices, costs and productivity. The convergence of media, telecommunication and computing technologies is creating a new integrated supply chain for the production and delivery of multimedia and information content. Most of the employment related to e-commerce around the content industries and communication infrastructure such as the Internet.

Jobs are both created and destroyed by technology, trade, and organizational change. These processes also underlie changes in the skill composition of employment. Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently. E-commerce is certainly driving the demand for IT professionals but it also requires IT expertise to be coupled with strong business application skills, thereby generating demand for a flexible, multi-skilled work force. There is a growing need for increased integration of Internet front-end applications with enterprise operations, applications and back-end databases. Many of the IT skill requirements needed for Internet support can be met by low-paid IT workers who can deal with the organizational services needed for basic web page programming. However, wide area networks, competitive web sites, and complex network applications require much more skill than a platform-specific IT job. Since the skills required for e-commerce are rare and in high demand, e-commerce might accelerate the up skilling trend in many countries by requiring high-skilled computer scientists to replace low-skilled information clerks, cashiers and market salespersons.

3. Education

Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects. Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects.

Although distance learning has existed for some time, the Internet makes possible a large expansion in coverage and better delivery of instruction. Text can be combined with audio/ video, and students can interact in real time via e-mail and discussion groups. Such technical improvements coincide with a general demand for retraining by those who, due to work and family demands, cannot attend traditional courses. Distance learning via the Internet is likely to complement existing schools for children and university students, but it could have more of a substitution effect for continuing education programmes. For some degree programmes, high-prestige institutions could use their reputation to attract students who would otherwise attend a local facility. Owing to the Internet’s ease of access and convenience for distance learning, overall demand for such programmes will probably expand, leading to growth in this segment of e-commerce.

As shown in the previous section, high level skills are vital in a technology-based and knowledge intensive economy. Changes associated with rapid technological advances in industry have made continual upgrading of professional skills an economic necessity. The goal of lifelong learning can only be accomplished by reinforcing and adapting existing systems of learning, both in public and private sectors. The demand for education and training concerns the full range of modern technology. Information technologies are uniquely capable of providing ways to meet this demand. Online training via the Internet ranges from accessing self-study courses to complete electronic classrooms. These computer-based training programmes provide flexibility in skills acquisition and are more affordable and relevant than more traditional seminars and courses.

4. Private Life and Society

Increasing representation of a wide variety of content in digital form results in easier and cheaper duplication and distribution of information. This has a mixed effect on the provision of content. On the one hand, content can be distributed at a lower unit cost. On the other hand, distribution of content outside of channels that respect intellectual property rights can reduce the incentives of creators and distributors to produce and make content available in the first place. Information technology raises a host of questions about intellectual property protection and new tools and regulations have to be developed in order to solve this problem.

Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content. However it is very difficult to find a sensible solution. Dealing with indecent material involves understanding not only the views on such topics but also their evolution over time. Furthermore, the same technology that allows for content altering with respect to decency can be used to filter political speech and to restrict access to political material. Thus, if censorship does not appear to be an option, a possible solution might be labelling. The idea is that consumers will be better informed in their decisions to avoid objectionable content.

The rapid increase in computing and communications power has raised considerable concern about privacy both in the public and private sector. Decreases in the cost of data storage and information processing make it likely that it will become practicable for both government and private data-mining enterprises to collect detailed dossiers on all citizens. Nobody knows who currently collects data about individuals, how this data is used and shared or how this data might be misused. These concerns lower the consumers’ trust in online institutions and communication and, thus, inhibit the development of electronic commerce. A technological approach to protecting privacy might by cryptography although it might be claimed that cryptography presents a serious barrier to criminal investigations.

It is popular wisdom that people today suffer information overload. A lot of the information available on the Internet is incomplete and even incorrect. People spend more and more of their time absorbing irrelevant information just because it is available and they think they should know about it. Therefore, it must be studied how people assign credibility to the information they collect in order to invent and develop new credibility systems to help consumers to manage the information overload.

Technological progress inevitably creates dependence on technology. Indeed the creation of vital infrastructure ensures dependence on that infrastructure. As surely as the world is now dependent on its transport, telephone, and other infrastructures, it will be dependent on the emerging information infrastructure. Dependence on technology can bring risks. Failures in the technological infrastructure can cause the collapse of economic and social functionality. Blackouts of long-distance telephone service, credit data systems, and electronic funds transfer systems, and other such vital communications and information processing services would undoubtedly cause widespread economic disruption. However, it is probably impossible to avoid technological dependence. Therefore, what must be considered is the exposure brought from dependence on technologies with a recognizable probability of failure, no workable substitute at hand, and high costs as a result of failure.

The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will be costly or difficult to modify in the future.

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